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Review: Riese & Mller Load

Like canning tomatoes or wearing only second-hand clothing, riding a cargo bike has long been something I’d like to do, if only it wasn’t so hard. Cargo bikes are expensive, awkward, and heavy. When I went to Portland’s Splendid Cycles to pick up the Riese & Müller Load and ride it twelve miles home, I straddled it dubiously.

“Look at it this way,” said Splendid Cycles proprietor Joel Grover. “By the time you get home, you’re going to be a lot better at riding it than you are now!”

It’s true. After two weeks of riding the Load around my neighborhood to the grocery store and to drop my kids off at preschool, I’ve finally gotten used to it. In fact, I love it. But it wouldn’t be at all possible without electrical assistance. This bike is designed to cart around 440 pounds of weight. There is no way that my puny legs would be able to move this thing without a motor.

Points of Interest

In 1992, German mechanical engineers, fathers, and entrepreneurs Markus Riese and Heiko Müller realized that if you give a bike full suspension, those points of suspension can double as points of rotation for a folding bike. Less than a year later, Müller read about the Hesse Innovation Prize and built an aluminum prototype in ten days (and nights). The Birdy won the award, which was the push that Riese & Müller needed to get started.

The Load is their full-suspension cargo e-bike, with a double-battery Bosch electric assist motor. With a wheelbase of a little over six feet, it’s slightly more compact than you might expect from a cargo bike. As with the Yuba Boda Boda, it was too big to strap to a car's bike rack, so I planned to ride it twelve miles home.

Riese & Müller

When I got to Splendid Cycles, Grover had tricked out the Load Touring HS for my children. The cargo box is completely customizable. He installed two five-point harnesses in the box, protected by the interior low side walls that were attached to the trellis. He also threw in a Cordura child rain cover, which has clear plastic panels for your kids to see through.

Although the seat and the handlebars were set to a much taller person’s height, it only took a few minutes to adjust the saddle and the stem to fit me. Not only can you adjust the stem height to make the handlebars shorter, you can also loosen a clamp to adjust the stem angle to bring the handlebars closer to the seat.

I was able to stay on bike routes for the entire twelve-mile ride home, which is something that might not be a possibility in places that are less bike-friendly than Portland, Oregon. Still, the definition of viable cycling infrastructure can vary greatly, even here.

While the Load comes with fat Schwalbe commuter tires, it still feels a little unstable at speeds below ten miles per hour. It’s hard to maintain that speed on bike routes that are shared with pedestrians and joggers.

Unlike the Shimano STEPS e-assist system I've tried, the Bosch e-assisted system doesn’t automatically downshift when you stop. That meant that I had to do a lot of frantic down- and up-shifting to keep the bike going, as I slowed and restarted to avoid pedestrians or let people merge into traffic.

Portland’s bike routes, while plentiful, usually also involve at least a few narrow hairpin turns and spiral ramps. At one point, I tried to navigate around one hairpin turn and found myself at the dead end of a trail, filled with many of Portland’s currently unhoused residents. They looked on with great interest as I executed a tortured one-billion-point turn on the most bougie electric cargo bike in the world.

Eventually, I gave up on staying on protected bike routes and went for cruising on main thoroughfares. Being passed by eighteen-wheelers was terrifying, but it was a relief to not stop for crosswalks or swerve for dogs. The Load HS has a top speed of 28 mph, and I was able to get the bike up to 25 mph without too much effort.

When Push Comes to Shove

Once I got back to my neighborhood, things started looking up. My husband loved having a cargo box. It was easy for him to make quick runs to the hardware or grocery store and put bags in the box, without trying to pack everything into panniers.

My toddler loved riding in a cargo box, too. Especially with the child cover, it was far less exposed than riding in a bike seat. I appreciated being able to see and interact with her at a glance. The cargo box is also compatible with infant child seats, with an optional attachment.

The double-battery system has incredible longevity. Granted, my daily rides are all within a mile of my house, but as of two weeks’ worth of riding, I haven’t had to charge it. And the Tektro hydraulic disc brakes are effective at bringing its rolling mass to a halt. I was extremely nervous about taking a couple hundred pounds of gear, bike, and humans down a 30-degree slope. But the brakes stopped us halfway down with no problem.

Riese & Müller

It's a miracle how comfortable this bike is. I hopped on my commuter bike after a week riding the Load, and was shocked by how squirrelly the handlebars were and how jolting the ride was, after a week spent cruising smoothly on a fully-suspended bike with perfect geometry.

And fittingly, given Riese & Müller’s history of innovative thinking, there were many small details that made the bike easier to use. For example, being able to quickly adjust the saddle and stem heights meant that it was easy for my spouse and I to switch off who rode the bike.

One of the biggest hurdles to riding a big e-bike is how to lock it up when you’re running errands. Bike stands are crowded, if you can even bring yourself to smash your multi-thousand-dollar car replacement in with a bunch of beater fixies. The Load comes with not only an integrated wheel lock, but an optional folding Abus Bordo lock whose holder doubles as a water bottle holder! We took the Load to outdoor picnics and locked it up, free-standing, next to our blanket and knew it wasn't going anywhere.

And finally, it’s a great-looking bike. It's sporty, yet practical. I can’t count the number of times that I almost fell off when people shouted compliments as I rode past.

Short People

The Load comes with the option for a ton of useful accessories. It's amazingly comfortable to ride, and it looks sharp, too. But having ridden an e-bike with automatic downshifting and push assistance, I don't think I can ride a cargo bike without it.

Often, I met other parents—moms, mostly—at preschool drop-off. They admired the bike, and admitted, "I've always felt like I'm not strong enough for a cargo bike. Do you find that you're strong enough?"

It's not a sexist question. At five-foot two, I'm not an imposing physical specimen. Cargo bikes are heavy. In order for someone who is my size to find them a viable car substitute, I need all the help I can get. With the Bosch e-assist system, the answer is only, "Well, most of the time."

Still, if you're not terrified of pushing several hundred pounds up a steep hill, the Load has plenty to recommend it. It's much more versatile and enjoyable to ride than a regular bike with an extended rear rack. While I found the Yuba Boda Boda more intuitive to use, my spouse and toddler definitely preferred the Load. Maybe after a six-month weight-training program, I'll feel a little differently.

Correction appended: 7/10/2018, 3:30 pm PDT: A previous version of this story stated that the Load does not have push assistance. It does.

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‘Lost in space’ Bakewell pudding found

Image copyright S. Anselm’s School
Image caption The pudding went missing shortly after being pictured at about 50,000ft above earth

A Bakewell pudding that went missing after being launched towards space has been found on a farm in Lincolnshire.

The dessert was attached to a high altitude balloon by pupils at a Derbyshire school in June.

It went missing after tracking devices recorded it at 52,500ft (16,000m) over Saxilby, Lincolnshire, with search efforts sparking interest online.

The celestial pudding was found on Saturday near Louth and even astronaut Tim Peake has tweeted the good news.

Farmer Neil Pawson, 53, found it in an asparagus field while walking his dog in Donington on Bain.

He said: “I was on a public footpath and looked up, saw something white and went to investigate – it could have been an injured swan or something.

Image copyright Neil Pawson
Image caption The Bakewell pudding was found just off a footpath by a man walking his dog

“I thought it was obviously a school experiment. Then I traced it down to the box, and thought ‘ahhh’,” he added.

“We often find balloons, but not something like this.”

Nick McCloud, who helped pupils at S. Anselm’s Preparatory School with the launch, said the pudding had “very clearly been nibbled round the edges”, adding he would be buying Mr Pawson a replacement pudding as thanks.

The farmer had already contributed to a fundraising project run as part of the experiment, with more than £1,600 to be donated to the Guide Dogs for the Blind.

Among those following the fortunes of the flying foodstuff was Stephen Fry, whose tweet about its mysterious disappearance attracted more than 5,000 likes.

Follow BBC East Midlands on Facebook, on Twitter, or on Instagram. Send your story ideas to eastmidsnews@bbc.co.uk.

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Peter Dinklage and Elle Fanning are the last people on Earth in stunningly weird ‘I Think We’re Alone Now’ trailer

Most post-apocalyptic movies conjure up images of sawed-off shotguns, stray dogs, and zombies. I Think We’re Alone Now shows a very different side to the end of the world.

Directed by Reed Morano of The Handmaid’s Tale, the Sundance success stars Peter Dinklage and Elle Fanning—seemingly the last two people on Earth. As Dinklage revels in the peace and quiet in a narrative akin to The Twilight Zone’s “Time Enough At Last“, Fanning relentlessly pursues their unlikely friendship.

Morano told Entertainment Weekly she was drawn to the unconventional story for its unusual take on the apocalypse theme, adding, “I was looking for something a little bit weird, or just a little bit different tonally.” 

With 52% on Metacritic and an 82% on Rotten Tomatoes, whether the film is too weird for audiences has yet to be seen. 

I Think We’re Alone Now hits theaters nationwide September 21.

Read more: http://mashable.com/

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How Traveling With a Guide Dog Opens Up a Whole New World

I remember the first time I went to the airport with my guide dog Corky. She was on the job, guiding me through throngs of harried passengers, head up, tail wagging, relishing her job. I knew shed be focused, after all, in training wed worked together in Midtown Manhattan and shed been alert and focused. Shed be just the same in the United terminal at JFK. Suddenly a man approached us. By his accent he seemed German. Excuse me, he said, but Ive been so much missing my dog.

If you go everywhere with a guide dog, as I do, you soon find youre more than just a blind traveler: often youre an impromptu provider of animal comfort to strangers. After twenty plus years of working with my guide dogs around the world Ive come to understand how deprived of animal contact millions of people really are.

Human beings are meant to have animals in their lives, and while pet ownership in the US is at an all-time high, Im often approached by strangerson sidewalks, in airportswho say roughly the same thing: I wish I could have a dog but my landlord wont allow it. Or: I have to travel for my livelihood and I cant have an animal. Or: Can I pet your dog?

Now, as a public service I will tell you that a guide dog mustnt be petted or distracted when its working and it is always working while wearing its recognizable harness. But when that harness comes off? The dog knows its love time. And I shouldnt admit this: but I sometimes take off my guide dogs harness just to let these folks pet her.

Its a funny thing, two complete strangers standing beside an airport Starbucks, while unexpected gentleness and affection tumbles out.

Whats a dog for? Its estimated that dogs entered the human circle as far back as 30,000 years ago. Did they come for our garbage? Maybe they came because we had fire? Sometimes I like to joke that they liked our singing. Ill make a stab and say they came to us because, frankly, they liked us more than we liked ourselves.

As for science, we know dogs, like humans, possess mirror neuronstheir brains understand gestures and even seek to imitate them just as we do. When we yawn our friends yawn. A babys first word is often the word shes heard most. Many dogs know immediately how were feeling and interact with us accordingly.

My first guide dog was a big yellow Labrador girl named Corky. I received her at Guiding Eyes for the Blind, one of the nations premier guide dog training schools. When I went there I thought Id be handed a smart dog who knew some commands and that would be it. I had no idea I was about to be changed by hertransformed really, so that the old me would be eclipsed entirely.

I discovered with Corky and her trainers that I knew nothing about admiration. High school and college hadnt taught me a thing about appreciation and regards. Linda, one of Corkys trainers explained to our class of new guide dog users that guide dogs need praise.

Our new dogs require praiselots of praise, said Linda. Its all in the voice. Nowadays a guide dog loves it when you say, Good dog with a tone of true joy. Try it! And we all said, Good dog, just as Linda had shown us.

In that moment, Corky raised her face to look at me, her big yellow snout pointing straight up. And every dog in the room looked up at their respective human. Something palpable went around our circlethe star of praise that only dogs can see was released by our voices. Good dog! We said it again and again. Our overdramatized tones were like stylized laughter in an opera. All tails were wagging.

We say, Good dog because Guiding Eyes dogs really want to work, said Linda. They have been through many months of training. These dogs enjoy their jobs. But just like you, they require praise. From this moment on you will be saying Good dog as much as a hundred times a day.

Who affirms good things even a dozen times a day? Who makes talking goodness a habit of her or his minutes? I sat with my Corkys head on my shoe and thought about the talking bluesas a poet Id studied vocal sorrowbut never had I considered a running, day long practice of spoken good. Good dog would become my hourly practice and over time (though I didnt yet know it), dog-praise would change many of my habits of thought.

So there I am with my guide dog in an airport. A man or woman approaches and he or she says I used to have a dog but I cant have one these days. Sometimes theyll say I had to put my dog down just last month. The pain is palpable.

In my view praise also means admitting others into our own circle. It doesnt cost a thing to affirm others. My dog is always mirroring. She wants to praise me right back. And where strangers are concerned thats easy. So the harness comes off and there in the staid and arid terminal a handsome, genuine, far reaching, simple moment of shared love occurs.

And then we all go our separate ways.

Excerpted with permission from Have Dog Will Travel: A Poet's Journey by Stephen Kuusisto. Courtesy of Simon & Schuster.

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19 People Share Their Creepiest Paranormal Experiences

Ghosts. Spirits. Demons. Just that creepy, icky feeling where the hair on the back of your neck stands up.

A lot of us have had at least one unexplainable experience in our lives.

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19 People Share the Thing Someone Said That Changed the Course of Their Life

Life is hard.

And sometimes, we find ourselves in such a place where we need to hear a specific message that will help lead us through those difficult times.

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Behemoth, bully, thief: how the English language is taking over the planet

The long read: No language in history has dominated the world quite like English does today. Is there any point in resisting?

On 16 May, a lawyer named Aaron Schlossberg was in a New York cafe when he heard several members of staff speaking Spanish. He reacted with immediate fury, threatening to call US Immigration and Customs Enforcement and telling one employee: Your staff is speaking Spanish to customers when they should be speaking English This is America. A video of the incident quickly went viral, drawing widespread scorn. The Yelp page for his law firm was flooded with one-star reviews, and Schlossberg was soon confronted with a fiesta protest in front of his Manhattan apartment building, which included a crowd-funded taco truck and mariachi band to serenade him on the way to work.

As the Trump administration intensifies its crackdown on migrants, speaking any language besides English has taken on a certain charge. In some cases, it can even be dangerous. But if something has changed around the politics of English since Donald Trump took office, the anger Schlossberg voiced taps into deeper nativist roots. Elevating English while denigrating all other languages has been a pillar of English and American nationalism for well over a hundred years. Its a strain of linguistic exclusionism heard in Theodore Roosevelts 1919 address to the American Defense Society, in which he proclaimed that we have room for but one language here, and that is the English language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Americans, of American nationality, and not as dwellers in a polyglot boardinghouse.

As it turned out, Roosevelt had things almost perfectly backwards. A century of immigration has done little to dislodge the status of English in North America. If anything, its position is stronger than it was a hundred years ago. Yet from a global perspective,it is not America that is threatened by foreign languages. It is the world that is threatened by English.

Behemoth, bully, loudmouth, thief: English is everywhere, and everywhere, English dominates. From inauspicious beginnings on the edge of a minor European archipelago, it has grown to vast size and astonishing influence. Almost 400m people speak it as their first language; a billion more know it as a secondary tongue. It is an official language in at least 59 countries, the unofficial lingua franca of dozens more. No language in history has been used by so many people or spanned a greater portion of the globe. It is aspirational: the golden ticket to the worlds of education and international commerce, a parents dream and a students misery, winnower of the haves from the have-nots. It is inescapable: the language of global business, the internet, science, diplomacy, stellar navigation, avian pathology. And everywhere it goes, it leaves behind a trail of dead: dialects crushed, languages forgotten, literatures mangled.

One straightforward way to trace the growing influence of English is in the way its vocabulary has infiltrated so many other languages. For a millennium or more, English was a great importer of words, absorbing vocabulary from Latin, Greek, French, Hindi, Nahuatl and many others. During the 20th century, though, as the US became the dominant superpower and the world grew more connected, English became a net exporter of words. In 2001, Manfred Grlach, a German scholar who studies the dizzying number of regional variants of English he is the author of the collections Englishes, More Englishes, Still More Englishes, and Even More Englishes published the Dictionary of European Anglicisms, which gathers together English terms found in 16 European languages. A few of the most prevalent include last-minute, fitness, group sex, and a number of terms related to seagoing and train travel.

In some countries, such as France and Israel, special linguistic commissions have been working for decades to stem the English tide by creating new coinages of their own to little avail, for the most part. (As the journalist Lauren Collins has wryly noted: Does anyone really think that French teenagers, per the academys diktat, are going to trade out sexting for texto pornographique?) Thanks to the internet, the spread of English has almost certainly sped up.

The gravitational pull that English now exerts on other languages can also be seen in the world of fiction. The writer and translator Tim Parks has argued that European novels are increasingly being written in a kind of denatured, international vernacular, shorn of country-specific references and difficult-to-translate wordplay or grammar. Novels in this mode whether written in Dutch, Italian or Swiss German have not only assimilated the style of English, but perhaps more insidiously limit themselves to describing subjects in a way that would be easily digestible in an anglophone context.

Yet the influence of English now goes beyond simple lexical borrowing or literary influence. Researchers at the IULM University in Milan have noticed that, in the past 50 years, Italian syntax has shifted towards patterns that mimic English models, for instance in the use of possessives instead of reflexives to indicate body parts and the frequency with which adjectives are placed before nouns. German is also increasingly adopting English grammatical forms, while in Swedish its influence has been changing the rules governing word formation and phonology.

Within the anglophone world, that English should be the key to all the worlds knowledge and all the worlds places is rarely questioned. The hegemony of English is so natural as to be invisible. Protesting it feels like yelling at the moon. Outside the anglophone world, living with English is like drifting into the proximity of a supermassive black hole, whose gravity warps everything in its reach. Every day English spreads, the world becomes a little more homogenous and a little more bland.


Until recently, the story of English was broadly similar to that of other global languages: it spread through a combination of conquest, trade and colonisation. (Some languages, such as Arabic and Sanskrit, also caught on through their status as sacred tongues.) But then, at some point between the end of the second world war and the start of the new millenium, English made a jump in primacy that no amount of talk about it as a lingua franca or global language truly captures. It transformed from a dominant language to what the Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan calls a hypercentral one.

De Swaan divides languages into four categories. Lowest on the pyramid are the peripheral languages, which make up 98% of all languages, but are spoken by less than 10% of mankind. These are largely oral, and rarely have any kind of official status. Next are the central languages, though a more apt term might be national languages. These are written, are taught in schools, and each has a territory to call its own: Lithuania for Lithuanian, North and South Korea for Korean, Paraguay for Guarani, and so on.

Following these are the 12 supercentral languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Malay, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swahili each of which (except for Swahili) boast 100 million speakers or more. These are languages you can travel with. They connect people across nations. They are commonly spoken as second languages, often (but not exclusively) as a result of their parent nations colonial past.

Then, finally, we come to the top of the pyramid, to the languages that connect the supercentral ones. There is only one: English, which De Swaan calls the hypercentral language that holds the entire world language system together. The Japanese novelist Minae Mizumura similarly describes English as a universal language . For Mizumura, what makes it universal is not that it has many native speakers Mandarin and Spanish have more but that it is used by the greatest number of non-native speakers in the world. She compares it to a currency used by more and more people until its utility hits a critical mass and it becomes a world currency. The literary critic Jonathan Arac is even more blunt, noting, in a critique of what he calls Anglo-Globalism, that English in culture, like the dollar in economics, serves as the medium through which knowledge may be translated from the local to the global.

In the last few decades, as globalisation has accelerated and the US has remained the worlds most powerful country, the advance of English has taken on a new momentum. In 2008, Rwanda switched its education system from French to English, having already made English an official language in 14 years earlier. Officially, this was part of the governments effort to make Rwanda the tech hub of Africa. Unofficially, its widely believed to be an expression of disgust at Frances role in propping-up the pre-1994 Hutu-dominant government, as well as a reflection that the countrys ruling elite mostly speaks English, having grown up as exiles in anglophone east Africa. When South Sudan became independent in 2011, it made English its official language despite having very few resources or qualified personnel with which to teach it in schools. The Minister of higher education at the time justified the move as being aimed at making the country different and modern, while the news director of South Sudan Radio added that with English, South Sudan could become one nation and communicate with the rest of the world understandable goals in a country home to more than 50 local languages.

An
An English class at a government school in Bentiu, South Sudan. Photograph: Roberto Schmidt/AFP/Getty Images

The situation in east Asia is no less dramatic. China currently has more speakers of English as a second language than any other country. Some prominent English teachers have become celebrities, conducting mass lessons in stadiums seating thousands. In South Korea, meanwhile, according to the sociolinguist Joseph Sung-Yul Park, English is a national religion. Korean employers expect proficiency in English, even in positions where it offers no obvious advantage.

The quest to master English in Korea is often called the yeongeo yeolpung or English frenzy. Although mostly confined to a mania for instruction and immersion, occasionally this frenzy spills over into medical intervention. As Sung-Yul Park relates: An increasing number of parents in South Korea have their children undergo a form of surgery that snips off a thin band of tissue under the tongue Most parents pay for this surgery because they believe it will make their children speak English better; the surgery supposedly enables the child to pronounce the English retroflex consonant with ease, a sound that is considered to be particularly difficult for Koreans.

There is no evidence to suggest that this surgery in any way improves English pronunciation. The willingness to engage in this useless surgical procedure strikes me, though, as a potent metaphor for Englishs peculiar status in the modern world. It is no longer simply a tool suited to a particular task or set of tasks, as it was in the days of the Royal Navy or the International Commission for Air Navigation. It is now seen as the access code to the global elite. If you want your children to get ahead, then they better have English in their toolkit.


Is the conquest of English really so bad? In the not-too-distant future, thanks to English, the curse of Babel will be undone and the children of men may come together once again, united with the aid of a common tongue. Certainly, thats what Englishs boosters would have you believe. After all, what a work is English, how copious in its vocabulary, how noble in expression, how sinuous in its constructions, and yet how plain in its basic principles. A language, in short, with a word for almost everything, capable of an infinite gradation of meanings, equally suited to describing the essential rights of mankind as to ornamenting a packet of crisps, whose only defect, as far as I know, is that it makes everyone who speaks it sound like a duck.

Well, not really. (OK, maybe a little English, while not an ugly language, isnt exactly pretty either). Mostly, Im speaking out of bitterness one that is old, and until recently, lay dormant. My first language was Polish. I learned it from my parents at home. English followed shortly, at school in Pennsylvania. I learned to speak it fluently, but with an accent, which took years of teasing and some speech therapy, kindly provided by the state to wear away. That, combined with the experience of watching the widespread condescension towards those who take their time learning English, left me a lifelong English-sceptic. (I admit, also, that a strain of linguistic megalomania runs through many Polish speakers, one best summed up by the novelist Joseph Conrad, who, when asked why he didnt write in his native language, replied: I value too much our beautiful Polish literature to introduce into it my worthless twaddle. But for Englishmen my capacities are just sufficient.)

Its not that English is bad. Its fine! A perfectly nice language, capable of expressing a great many things and with scores of fascinating regional variants, from Scots to Singapore English. But it is so prevalent. And so hard to escape. And so freighted with buffoonish puffery written on its behalf: our magnificent bastard tongue; the language that connects the world. Please. There is no reason for any particular language to be worshipped around the world like a golden idol. There is a pervasive mismatch between the grand claims made on Englishs behalf, and its limitations as means of communication (limitations, to be fair, that it shares with all other languages).

Is English oppressive? When its pervasive influence silences other languages, or discourages parents from passing on their native languages to their children, I think it can be. When you do know another language, its merely constricting, like wearing trousers that are too tight. Thats because while English is good for a great many things, it is not good for everything. To me, family intimacies long to be expressed in Polish. So does anything concerning the seasons, forest products and catastrophic sorrows. Poetry naturally sounds better in Polish. Ive always spoken it to cats and dogs on the assumption that they understand, being simultaneously convinced that raccoons and lesser animals only respond to shouts.

This isnt quite as idiosyncratic as it sounds. Aneta Pavlenko, an applied linguist at Temple University in Pennsylvania, who has spent her career studying the psychology of bilingual and multilingual speakers, has found that speakers of multiple languages frequently believe that each language conveys a different self. Languages, according to her respondents, come in a kaleidoscopic range of emotional tones. I would inevitably talk to babies and animals in Welsh, reports a Welsh-speaker. An informant from Finland counters: Finnish emotions are rarely stated explicitly. Therefore it is easier to tell my children that I love them in English. Several Japanese speakers say that its easier to express anger in English, especially by swearing.

Intuitive though it might be to some, the idea that different languages capture and construct different realities has been a subject of academic controversy for at least 200 years. The German explorer Alexander von Humboldt was among the first to articulate it in a complex form. After studying Amerindian languages in the New World, he came to the conclusion that every language draws a circle around its speakers, creating a distinct worldview through its grammar as well as in its vocabulary. In the 20th century, the American linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf elaborated this idea into a broader vision of how language structures thought. Both drew inspiration for their work from their study of North American languages such as Nootka, Shawnee and Hopi.

This idea now usually known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis, or Sapir-Whorf hypothesis has had a checkered history in academia. At different times, it has been hailed by it proponents as foundational insight for modern anthropology and literary theory, and blamed by its detractors as the source of the worst excesses of postmodern philosophy. In recent decades, sociolinguists have arrived at a few startlingly suggestive findings concerning the influence of language on colour perception, orientation and verbs of motion but in general, the more expansive notion that different languages inculcate fundamentally different ways of thinking has not been proven.

Nonetheless, some version of this idea continues to find supporters, not least among writers familiar with shifting between languages. Here is the memoirist Eva Hoffman on the experience of learning English in Vancouver while simultaneously feeling cut off from the Polish she had grown up speaking as a teenager in Krakw: This radical disjointing between word and thing is a desiccating alchemy, draining the world not only of significance but of its colours, striations, nuances its very existence. It is the loss of a living connection. The Chinese writer Xiaolu Guo described something similar in her recent memoir, writing about how uncomfortable she felt, at first, with the way the English language encouraged speakers to use the first-person singular, rather than plural. After all, how could someone who had grown up in a collective society get used to using the first-person singular all the time? But here, in this foreign country, I had to build a world as a first-person singular urgently.

Li
Li Yang teaches students his Crazy English accelerated learning method in Nanjing, China. Photograph: China Photos/Getty Images

In the 1970s, Anna Wierzbicka, a linguist who found herself marooned in Australia after a long career in Polish academia, stood the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis on its head. Instead of trying to describe the worldviews of distant hunter-gatherers, she turned her sociolinguistic lens on the surrounding anglophones. For Wierzbicka, English shapes its speakers as powerfully as any other language. Its just that in an anglophone world, that invisible baggage is harder to discern. In a series of books culminating in 2013s evocatively named Imprisoned in English, she has attempted to analyse various assumptions social, spatial, emotional and otherwise latent in English spoken by the middle and upper classes in the US and UK.

Reading Wierzbickas work is like peeking through a magic mirror that inverts the old how natives think school of anthropology and turns it back on ourselves. Her English-speakers are a pragmatic people, cautious in their pronouncements and prone to downplaying their emotions. They endlessly qualify their remarks according to their stance towards what is being said. Hence their endless use of expressions such as I think, I believe, I suppose, I understand, I suspect. They prefer fact over theories, savour control and space, and cherish autonomy over intimacy. Their moral lives are governed by a tightly interwoven knot of culture-specific concepts called right and wrong, which they mysteriously believe to be universal.

Wierzbickas description of Englishs subconscious system of values hardly holds true for the billion or more speakers of this most global of tongues. But it is also a reminder that, despite its influence, English is not truly universal. Its horizons are just as limited as those of any other language, whether Chinese or Hopi or Dalabon.

For if language connects people socially, it also connects them to a place. The linguist Nicholas Evans has described how Kayardild, a language spoken in northern Australia, requires a speaker to continually orient themselves according to the cardinal directions. Where an English speaker would orient things according to their own perception my left, my right, my front, my back a speaker of Kayardild thinks in terms of north, south, east and west. As a consequence, speakers of Kayardild (and those of several other languages that share this feature) possess absolute reckoning, or a kind of perfect pitch for direction. It also means removing ones self as the main reference point for thinking about space. As Evans writes of his own experiences learning the language, one aspect of speaking Kayardild, then, is learning that the landscape is more important and objective than you are. Kayardild grammar literally puts everyone in their place.

Kayardild and its kin are truly local languages, with few speakers, and modes of expression that are hard to separate from the places in which they are spoken. But that should not lead us to think that they are lesser. The world is made up of places, not universals. To speak only English, in spite of its vast vocabulary and countless varieties, is still to dwell in a rather small pool. It draws the same circle Humboldt described around its speakers as each of the other 6,000 human languages. The difference is that we have mistaken that circle for the world.


Because English is increasingly the currency of the universal, it is difficult to express any opposition to its hegemony that doesnt appear to be tainted by either nationalism or snobbery. When Minae Mizumura published the Fall of Language in the Age of English, in 2008, it was a surprise commercial success in Japan. But it provoked a storm of criticism, as Mizumura was accused of elitism, nationalism and being a hopeless reactionary. One representative online comment read: Who does she think she is, a privileged bilingual preaching to the rest of us Japanese! (Perhaps unsurprisingly, Mizumuras broader argument, about the gradual erosion of Japanese literature and especially, the legacy of the Japanese modernist novel got lost in the scuffle.)

Those of us troubled by the hyperdominance of English should also remember the role it has played in some societies especially multi-ethnic ones as a bridge to the wider world and counterweight to other nationalisms. This was especially keenly felt in South Africa, where Afrikaans was widely associated with the policy of apartheid. When the government announced that Afrikaans would be used as a language of instruction in schools on par with English in 1974, the decision led in 1976 to a mass demonstration by black students known as the Soweto uprising. Its brutal suppression resulted in hundreds of deaths, and is considered a turning point in the anti-apartheid struggle. Similar protests have periodically racked southern India since the 1940s over attempts to enforce official use of Hindi in place of English.

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A sign for English lessons in Nawalgarh, Rajasthan, India. Photograph: Alamy Stock Photo

In other parts of the world though, English still carries the full weight of its colonialist past. Since the 1960s, the celebrated Kenyan novelist Ngg wa Thiongo has advocated on behalf of African languages and against the prevalence of English-language education in postcolonial countries. In his landmark 1986 book Decolonising the Mind: the Politics of Language in African Literature, he describes the corrosive effect of English language instruction, comparing it to a form of spiritual subjugation. Colonial education, in which pupils were physically punished for speaking their native languages while at school (something also done to the Welsh into the early 20th century) was necessarily, and deliberately, alienating, like separating the mind from the body.

Since publishing Decolonising the Mind, Ngg has worked to put its dictates into practice. He renounced his baptismal name, James, and with it Christianity, and ceased to write fiction in English. Since the 1980s, he has written all his novels and plays in his native Gikuyu, only using English (and occasionally Kiswahili) for essays and polemics. This last decision is one that many people still question. As he said in a recent interview: If I meet an English person, and he says, I write in English, I dont ask him, Why are you writing in English? If I meet a French writer, I dont ask him, Why dont you write in Vietnamese? But I am asked over and over again, Why do you write in Gikuyu? For Africans, the view is there is something wrong about writing in an African language.

Part of the paradox of Nggs situation is that while he may be the worlds foremost advocate for writing literature in African languages, his novels have won acclaim and gained international recognition through the medium of English. The hegemony of English is now such that, in order to be recognised, any opposition to English has to formulated in English in order to be heard.


Today it is estimated that the world loses a language every two weeks. Linguists have predicted that between 50 and 90% of the worlds 6,000 or so languages will go extinct in the coming century. For even a fraction of these to survive, were going to have to start thinking of smaller languages not as endangered species worth saving, but as equals worth learning.

In most of the world, its already too late. In California, where I live, most of the languages that were spoken before the arrival of Europeans are already extinct. On Americas eastern seaboard, thanks to long proximity to Anglo settlers, the situation is even worse. Most of what we know about many of these vanished languages comes in the form of brief word lists compiled by European settlers and traders before the 19th century. Stadaconan (or Laurentian) survives only from a glossary of 220 words jotted down by Jacques Cartier when he sailed up the St Lawrence River in Canada in 1535. Eastern Atakapa, from Louisianas Gulf Coast, is known from a list of only 287, gathered in 1802. The last fragments of Nansemond, once spoken in eastern Virginia, were collected from the last living speaker just before his death in 1902, by which time he could only recall six words: one, two, three, four, five and dog.

The great Malian historian and novelist Amadou Hampt B once said that in Africa, when an elder dies, a library burns. Today, across the world, the libraries are still burning. In his marvellous book, Searching for Aboriginal Languages: Memoirs of a Field Worker, the linguist Robert MW Dixon describes travelling across Northern Queensland in the 1960s and 70s to record indigenous languages, many of which had already dwindled to a handful of speakers. Its hard to remain an oral language in an increasingly text-dependent world. All the forces of modernity, globalisation, industrialisation, urbanisation and the rise of the nation-state are arrayed against the small and local as opposed to the big and shareable.

In this past century, the Earth has been steadily losing diversity at every level of biology and culture. Few deny this is a bad thing. Too often though, we forget that these crises of diversity depend, to a great extent, on our own decisions. Much of what has been done can also be undone, provided there is the will for it. Hebrew is the most famous case of a language brought back from the dead, but linguistic revitalisation has been proven to be possible elsewhere as well. Czech became a viable national language thanks to the work of literary activists in the 19th century. On a much smaller scale, endangered languages such as Manx in the Isle of Man and Wampanoag in the US have been successfully pulled back from the brink.

Coming face-to-face with the current onslaught of linguicide, I find myself wanting to venture a modest proposal. What if anglo-globalism wasnt a one-way street? What if the pre-contact languages of the Americas were taught in American high schools? What if British schoolchildren learned some of the languages spoken by the actual residents of the former empire? (This is a utopian project obviously. But how much would it actually cost to add a linguistic elective to larger high schools? One jet fighter? A few cruise missiles?)

Current educational discourse is full of talk about the need to bolster childrens cognition. In the culture at large, experts have been trumpeting the cognitive benefits of everything from online brain games to magic mushrooms. Why not try Hopi instead? The point of this education wouldnt necessarily be to acquire fluency in an extinct or smaller language it would be to open a door.

And think of the vistas it might open up. For generations, a huge percentage of philosophy and social science has been conducted in and about English speakers. Humankind, as imagined by the academy, is mostly anglophone. This has even been true in linguistics. Noam Chomskys idea of a universal grammar underpinning all languages was based on a rather narrow empirical base. More recent research into dozens of smaller languages, like Kayardild and Pirah, has been steadily whittling away at his list of supposed universals. We now know there are languages without adverbs, adjectives, prepositions and articles. There seems to be hardly anything that a language needs to be just thousands of natural experiments in how they might be assembled. And most of them are about to be lost.

In some ways, the worst threat may come not from the global onrush of modernity, but from an idea: that a single language should suit every purpose, and that being monolingual is therefore somehow normal. This is something thats often assumed reflexively by those of us who live most of our lives in English, but historically speaking, monolingualism is something of an aberration.

Before the era of the nation-state, polyglot empires were the rule, rather than the exception. Polyglot individuals abounded, too. For most of history, people lived in small communities. But that did not mean that they were isolated from one another. Multilingualism must have been common. Today, we see traces of this polyglot past in linguistic hotspots such as the Mandara mountains of Cameroon, where children as young as 10 routinely juggle four or five languages in daily life, and learn several others in school.

Residents of Arnhem Land in northern Australia routinely speak half a dozen or more languages by the time they are adults. Multilingualism, writes Nicholas Evans, is helped by the fact that you have to marry outside your clan, which likely means your wife or husband speaks a different language from you. It also means that you parents each speak a different language, and your grandparents three or four languages between them.

A resident of another linguistic hotspot, the Sepik region of Papua New Guinea, once told Evans: It wouldnt be any good if we talked the same; we like to know where people come from. Its a vision of Babel in reverse. Instead of representing a fall from human perfection, as in the biblical story, having many languages is a gift. Its something to remember before we let English swallow the globe.

Follow the Long Read on Twitter at @gdnlongread, or sign up to the long read weekly email here.

Read more: http://www.theguardian.com/us

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City responds perfectly to complaint about black child selling food

Image: Joe Raedle/Getty Images

You’d think people would stop calling the cops on young black kids who aren’t actually affecting their lives in the slightest, but here we are. At least this time the end of the story is a bit more heart-warming.

Jaequan Faulkner, 13, set up a little food stand outside of his home in Minnesota to help raise money for school clothes, and some heartless (read: racist) person called the police on him because he didn’t have a permit to run a business. Instead of shutting Faulkner down, the Minneapolis Police Department came out in support of him and teamed up with the local health department to get him the permit he needed to keep running, the Associate Press reported earlier in the week.

The story gained steam throughout the week, garnering more national attention and becoming a popular Twitter moment Friday night. People who learned about the story sympathized with Faulkner and praised the police for encouraging his entrepreneurial spirit rather than stifling it.

The local news station KARE 11 News reported on Faulkner’s small business, calling it a hit.

According to KARE 11, Faulkner started his hot dog and snack stand in 2016 with the help of his uncle, and he returned this summer after taking a break last year. Shortly after getting up and running, a complaint was made to the Minneapolis Department of Health about his food stand, AP reported.

Instead of attempting to shut Faulkner down, the city pitched in and took care of his $87 permit so he could keep selling his food and making money for school. Not only that, the health department contacted a local organization to give him some tips on keeping his business thriving and making sure everything is as clean as it can be.

Stories about individuals calling the police on black people who aren’t doing anything illegal at all or black kids who are just trying to make some money have been blowing up on the internet recently, with callers like Allison Ettel and Jennifer Schulte getting publicly roasted for their prejudiced behavior.

Although we don’t know for sure who called in the complaint on Faulkner, it’s nice to see local authorities being reasonable and helpful rather than antagonistic.

Read more: http://mashable.com/

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19 Science-Backed Ways Men Can Appear More Attractive To Women

Romantic attraction is a complicated thing that scientists still don’t completely understand.

But, through research and experimentation, they’ve come up with many ideas about what draws one person to another.

Below, Business Insider has rounded up some of the most compelling scientific insights about the traits and behaviors that make men more appealing to women.

The best part? None of the items on this list require you to get cosmetic surgery or do a major personality overhaul. We’re talking small tweaks, like acting nicer and swapping your deodorant.

Read on for simple ways to step up your dating game.

This is an update of an article originally posted by Drake Baer.

Look for the universal signals of flirtation

Rutgers University anthropologist and best-selling author Helen E. Fisher says that women around the world signal interest with a remarkably similar sequence of expressions.

As she shared at Psychology Today, it goes like this:

“First the woman smiles at her admirer and lifts her eyebrows in a swift, jerky motion as she opens her eyes wide to gaze at him. Then she drops her eyelids, tilts her head down and to the side, and looks away. Frequently she also covers her face with her hands, giggling nervously as she retreats behind her palms.

“This sequential flirting gesture is so distinctive that [German ethologist Irenaus] Eibl-Eibesfeldt was convinced it is innate, a human female courtship ploy that evolved eons ago to signal sexual interest.”

Look for someone ‘in your league’

Men – and women – are attracted to people who are as attractive as they are.

In one study, researchers at the University of California at Berkeley looked at the behavior of 60 heterosexual male and 60 heterosexual female users on an online dating site. While the majority of users were inclined to reach out to highly attractive people, they were most likely to get a response if that person was about as attractive as they were (as judged by independent raters).

“If you go for someone roughly [equal] to you in attractiveness, it avoids two things,” Nottingham Trent University psychologist Mark Sergeant, who was not involved with the study, told The Independent. “If they are much better-looking than you, you are worried about them going off and having affairs. If they are much less attractive, you are worried that you could do better.”

Present yourself as high status

A 2010 study from the University of Wales Institute found that men pictured with a Silver Bentley Continental GT were perceived as way more attractive than those pictures with a Red Ford Fiesta ST.

And a 2014 study from Cardiff Metropolitan University found that men pictured in a luxury apartment were rated more attractive than those in a control group.

Interestingly, men don’t seem to be more attracted to women when they’re pictured in a high-status context.

Look older

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Psychologists call it the “George Clooney Effect.”

As 2010 study of 3,770 heterosexual adults suggested that women often prefer older men. As the women became more financially independent, they said they liked older guys even more.

“We think this suggests greater financial independence gives women more confidence in partner choices, and attracts them to powerful, attractive older men,” lead author and University of Dundee psychologist Fhionna Moore said in a statement.

Evolutionary psychologists say that younger women and older men often pair up because while fertility only lasts from puberty to menopause in women, it can extend long into midlife for many men. Society also gives men greater opportunity to accumulate status and resources as they age.

Grow a light beard

In a 2013 study from researchers at the University of New South Wales, researchers had 177 heterosexual men and 351 heterosexual women look at images of 10 men in one of four conditions: clean-shaven, light stubble, heavy stubble, or full beard. Participants rated the men pictured on several traits, including attractiveness.

That women said the most attractive beard length was heavy stubble.

“Facial hair correlates not only with maturity and masculinity, but also with dominance and aggression,” write authors Barnaby J. Dixson and Robert C. Brooks.

“An intermediate level of beardedness is most attractive,” they add.

Build muscle (but not too much)

In a 2007 study from University of California, Los Angeles, 286 women looked at pictures of shirtless men and indicated which ones seemed like they would make the best long- and short-term partners.

Results showed that women were more likely to want short-term relationships with the guys who had big muscles.

The evolutionary signal that might be at work here?

Characteristics like muscularity are “cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success,” say authors David A. Frederick and Martie G. Haselton.

But Frederick and Haselton took away another telling finding: Less-muscular men were thought to be a better fit for long-term relationships. So if you want to catch a woman’s eye and hold her attention, you may be better off not going overboard.

Be kind

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One of the best documented findings in psychology is the halo effect, a bias where you unconsciously take one aspect of somebody as a proxy for their overall character. It’s why we think beautiful people are good at their jobs, even when they aren’t necessarily.

As psychologist and writer Scott Barry Kaufman notes, the halo effect works in other ways too.

In a 2014 Chinese study, more than 100 young people looked at images of men and women’s faces and rated them on attractiveness. Each face pictured was paired with a word that described either a positive personality trait – like kindness or honesty – or a negative personality trait, like being evil or mean.

Results showed that the people described with positive traits were rated more attractive.

“Even though beauty is an assessment of fitness value, there is no reason why assessment of fitness needs to be purely physical,” Kaufman writes, meaning that acting kind can make you appear more attractive.

Wear red

A 2010 cross-cultural study – with participants from China, England, Germany, and the US – found that women are most attracted to men wearing red.

In one experiment from the study, 55 female undergrads looked at a color photo of a man in either a red or green shirt, and then rated the man’s attractiveness.

Sure enough, the man was rated significantly more attractive when he was wearing a red shirt. The results were similar when researchers compared the red shirt to other color shirts as well.

Interestingly, participants generally weren’t aware that the man’s clothing color was influencing their perceptions of his attractiveness.

Make your partner laugh

Multiple studies indicate that women are more attracted to men who can make them laugh. Interestingly though, men generally aren’t more attracted to women who can make them laugh.

In one 2006 study published in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior, researchers asked undergraduate students (they didn’t indicate their sexual orientation) to indicate how much they valued a partner’s ability to make them laugh and their own ability to make their partner laugh.

Results showed that women valued both their partner’s sense of humor and their own ability to make their partner laugh; men valued only their own ability to make their partner laugh.

Walk a dog

Flickr via msakr Flickr via msakr

In a 2014 experiment from the Ruppin Academic Center in Israel and the University of Michigan, 100 Israeli women read vignettes about men.

Some of the men were described as “cads”: They would cheat on their partner and get into fights. The other men were described as stereotypical “dads”: They would work hard at their job and take good care of their kids.

Whenever the story featured a cad who owned a dog, women rated that man as a more suitable long-term partner than a cad who didn’t own a dog. Cads with dogs were even rated slightly more attractive than dads with dogs.

The researchers concluded that owning a pet signals that you’re nurturing and capable of making long-term commitments. It can also help you appear more relaxed, approachable, and happy.

Play good music

In a 2014 study, researchers at the University of Sussex asked about 1,500 women (whose average age was 28) to listen to simple and complex pieces of music and rate the attractiveness of the composer.

The results showed that women preferred the more complex music, and said they would choose the composer of the more complex music as a long-term partner.

Practice mindfulness

Australian researchers recently studied undergrads participating in a speed-dating session, and found that mindful men tended to receive higher attractiveness ratings from women.

Before the session began, 91 students were asked to fill out a mindfulness questionnaire in which they indicated how much they agreed with statements like:

“I perceive my feelings and emotions without having to react to them.”

“I notice changes in my body, such as whether my breathing slows down or speeds up.”

“I’m good at finding the words to describe my feelings.”

After each interaction with an opposite-sex partner, students privately indicated how “sexy” they found their partner and how much they’d like to date that person.

Results showed that men were generally more drawn to physically attractive women. (Independent coders had rated the students’ attractiveness beforehand.) But women were generally more attracted to mindful men.

Play extreme sports (carefully)

A 2014 study led by researchers at the University of Alaska at Anchorage found that women are attracted to men who take what the researchers call “hunter-gatherer risks.”

More than 230 undergrads filled out questionnaires about how attractive they would find a partner who engaged in certain risky behaviors, as opposed to a partner who engaged in low- or no-risk behaviors.

Hunter-gatherer risks included mountain biking, deep-sea scuba diving, and extreme rollerblading. “Modern” risks included plagiarizing an academic paper, casually handling chemicals in a lab, and not updating the virus-protection software on your computer.

Low- and no-risk behaviors included biking along paved paths and carefully handling chemicals in a chemistry-lab class.

Results showed that women said they would be more attracted to men who engaged in hunter-gatherer risks – the kinds that were similar to risks faced by ancestral humans. Women said they would be less attracted to men who engaged in modern risks, which might seem just plain dumb.

Wear a scented deodorant

Simply knowing that you’re wearing a new fragrance can make you act more confident, and even make you seem more attractive to other people.

In a small 2009 study published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science, researchers gave one group of male undergraduates a spray with antimicrobial ingredients and fragrance oil, and provided another group with an unscented spray that didn’t contain antimicrobial ingredients. Over the next few days, the men who used the scented spray reported higher self-confidence and felt more attractive.

The strange part? When a group of women were shown silent videos of the men, they found those who were wearing scented spray more attractive, even though they obviously couldn’t smell them. The researchers determined that the men using the scented spray displayed more confident behavior, which in turn made them more attractive.

Chow down on garlic

The smell of garlic on your breath is generally regarded as an instant romance killer. But a recent series of studies, from researchers at Charles University and the National Institute of Mental Health in the Czech Republic and the University of Stirling in the United Kingdom, suggests a different story when it comes to body odor.

In one study, eight men ate a slice of bread with cheese and 12 grams of fresh garlic; another eight ate bread and cheese without any garlic. For the next 12 hours, the men wore cotton pads under their armpits and were instructed not to use any deodorants or fragrances.

The following day, all the men returned to the lab, where 40 women sniffed the pads and rated the odor on pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity, and intensity. Results showed that the garlic group was rated more pleasant and attractive and less masculine and intense.

Do volunteer work

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A 2013 study from UK researchers found that women find men more appealing when they do volunteer work.

About 30 women looked at a picture of a man with a brief description of his hobbies, which sometimes included volunteer work. The same procedure was repeated with about 30 men looking at a picture of a woman. Everyone rated how attractive they found the person pictured for a short- and long-term relationship.

Both genders rated the person pictured as more attractive for a long-term relationship when they were described as a volunteer – but the effect was stronger for women rating men.

Show off your scars

That scar on your chin from when you fell off a bike could help you attract a mate.

In a 2009 study, researchers at the University of Liverpool and the University of Stirling took photos of 24 male and 24 female undergrads. They digitally manipulated half of the images so the subjects appeared to have facial scars – for example, a line on the person’s forehead that looked like the result of an injury.

Then the researchers recruited another group of about 200 heterosexual male and female undergrads to rate all the people pictured based on attractiveness for both short- and long-term relationships.

Results showed that men with scars appeared slightly more attractive for short-term relationships than men without scars. Women, on the other hand, were perceived as equally attractive regardless of whether they had scarred faces.

Use open body language in your online dating photo

A 2016 study – from researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Northwestern University – suggests that we’re more attracted to people who display expansive body language.

In one experiment included in the study, the researchers created profiles for three men and three women on a GPS-based dating app.

In one set of profiles, the men and women were pictured in contractive positions – for example, by crossing their arms or hunching their shoulders.

In the other set of profiles, the same men and women were pictured in expansive positions, like holding their arms upward in a “V” or reaching out to grab something.

Results showed that people in expansive postures were selected as potential dates more often than those in contractive postures. This effect was slightly larger for women selecting men.

Look proud

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2011 University of British Columbia study revealed a curious finding: Heterosexual men and women prefer different emotional expressions on potential mates.

In one experiment included in the study, researchers had nearly 900 North American adults look at photos of opposite-sex individuals online.

The researchers were specifically comparing people’s perceptions of expressions of pride, happiness, shame, and neutrality (other people had already identified the emotion behind the expression in the photo). For women evaluating men, the most appealing expression was pride, and the least appealing was happiness.

Even weirder, an expression of shame was relatively attractive on both men and women.

Read the original article on Business Insider. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter. Copyright 2018.

Read next on Business Insider: These are the main strengths a narcissist will try to target in you, and how you can protect yourself

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